Desperate Crossing: The Untold Story of the Pilgrims

Desperate Crossing: The Untold Story of the Pilgrims

Learning Target: I will explain the differences between Puritans and Separatists.

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.2 Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.7 Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  1. Review the Learning Target.
  2. Review Desperate Crossing: The Untold Story of the Pilgrims Viewing Notes.
  3. Discuss Desperate Crossing Viewing Note Highlights instructions.
  4. Watch Desperate Crossing.
  5. Open Google Classroom and accept my invite and review Desperate Crossing: The Untold Story of the Pilgrims Viewing Notes tonight.

Desperate Crossing Narrative Prompt

Prompt: Write a historical narrative in third person that underlines and superscripts1 ALL posted terms to fully explain 1) reasons the emigrants left England for America, 2) describes the desperate crossing made by passengers aboard the Mayflower, and 3) provides vivid descriptions of the events that led to the permanent establishment of Plymouth Colony. Narratives must follow instructions, be submitted in Google Classroom, use proper language conventions, and use ALL terms.

  1. Scrooby, England: This is the city and country where the story of the Pilgrims began.
  2. Pilgrims: This group of emigrants established the second successful English colony in the new world of North America.
  3. William Bradford: He wrote most of the information that is known about the Pilgrims and served almost thirty years as governor of Plymouth Plantation. In 1607 he was an orphan living on his uncle's farm, but was passionate about theology. His business in Holland failed, but he believed this was God's will.
  4. Church of England: King Henry VIII established this Church in 1534.
  5. Protestant: Martin Luther and other Church reformers were called this after protesting unbiblical practices within the Catholic Church and leading a movement called the Protestant Reformation.
  6. Separatists: Some people felt the king's church could never be purified and wanted to separate from it. They thought there shouldn't be a Church of England. English courts moved against these people.
  7. Puritans: They desired to purify the Church of England by removing all unbiblical practices that had originated within the Catholic Church.
  8. King James: James was an intellectual, a practical Scottish politician, and believed he was God's right hand man on earth because he was king. He believed in religious unity and obedience. (10 minutes)
  9. Holland: The Separatists decided to settle in this country in 1609 because they had heard about freedom of religion for all people. They were forced to secretly leave England for Holland, but were captured by an English magistrate. They were finally allowed to leave and emigrate here, which is a province of the Netherlands.
  10. Netherlands: The Dutch state had seven sovereignties that promoted religious tolerance to keep it as a melting pot of cultures. (15 minutes)
  11. Amsterdam: The city was more industrial than agrarian and caused hardship for Bradford and the Pilgrims because many of them were skilled in farming.
  12. Dorothy May: She was a separatist who came to Holland and eventually became the wife of William Bradford.
  13. congregation: This is a religious assembly of persons or believers. Protestants living in England at the time of the Pilgrims included Anglicans, Separatists, and Puritans.
  14. John Robinson: He was pastor to the 300 English refugees or Separatists living in Holland.
  15. William Brewster: He was a church elder and learned how to use a printing press in his fifties. He used the press for profit and publishing pamphlets against the oppressive rule of King James. (20 minutes)
  16. Dutch: Many of the Separatists became concerned that the Dutch were too worldly and set poor Christian examples for their children.
  17. Leiden: Pilgrims moved from Amsterdam to this city in the Netherlands sometime in 1609. They sought permission from King James in 1618 to establish a settlement near the Virginia Colony. (31 minutes)
  18. America: Separatists began to talk about going to America. By 1617, the Pilgrims would have had a lot of information about North America, but not everything was true.
  19. Jamestown: This was not a very successful colony, but the Separatists began to discuss the possibility of moving to this part of America. This was home to only about 2,000 Europeans, but millions of native inhabitants.
  20. Native Americans: Some of these people were captured or kidnapped and brought back to Europe as human specimens or living advertisements of what was in the Americas.
  21. Virginia Colony: The Pilgrims decided to settle in this location because it was claimed by the king of England.
  22. Edward Winslow: He was a young printer who was apprenticed in London. Winslow worked for Brewster and became a member of the Separatist congregation.
  23. Myles Standish: The Pilgrims hired him as a military advisor. He helped train them in the use of firearms and hand-to-hand combat. He was an English military officer, an adventurer, and supported the Protestants in the Dutch Republic against the Catholic Spanish during the Eighty Years War. He was known to have a terrible temper. (38 minutes)
  24. pamphlets: Brewster wrote and printed seditious works on his press that spoke against holidays such as Christmas.
  25. Merchant Adventurers: This group of investors helped finance the trip to America with the agreement that Pilgrims would work for the company for seven years and then split the profits. The Adventurers changed the terms of the contract, which disappointed the Pilgrims. The trip cost 1500 pounds sterling, which was more money than the Pilgrims could afford. The Adventurers decided that the group would work for the company six days a week, have no time for themselves, and would not have any private profit of their own. Pilgrims did not sign the new contract.
  26. Speedwell: Fifty-five Separatist colonists left Holland on July 23, 1620 to England on this small ship that was purchased for their voyage across the Atlantic to the New World. (43 minutes)
  27. Mayflower: In Southampton, England, the Pilgrims located this ship. It was a cargo ship and not designed as a passenger vessel. She could carry 180 tons of wine and was a standard vessel in the early seventeenth century. There were a total of 102 passengers on the ship, not counting the 20-35 crew members.
  28. Strangers: This group traveled with the Pilgrims. Bradford nicknamed them "strangers." They were tradesmen and had skills such as barrel making. They did not always agree with the separatists.
  29. Master Christopher Jones: He was captain of the Mayflower and hired to take the settlers to American and return to England.
  30. voyage: On August 5, 1620, departing from the English Channel and after over three years of planning, the Mayflower and Speedwell left on the trip to America. (52 minutes) The Speedwell took on too much water and the crew was forced to return to land twice. Twenty passengers left the journey at Plymouth, England because the Speedwell was not deemed seaworthy. This caused the Mayflower to have a lot more passengers than expected. The main beam almost broke in October and nearly caused the ship to split in two. Fortunately, a Pilgrim had brought a large screw that was used to jack up the main beam. A sailor died on the journey and a baby named Oceanus Hopkins was born. The journey took nine weeks.
  31. diet: Hardtack, salted beef, and beer were the main foods consumed by passengers. They ate heavily salted foods.
  32. Hudson River: On November 9, 1620, Captain Jones was near this river where the Pilgrims planned to establish their colony. It was far north of Jamestown, but legally still part of the English colony of Virginia. Master Jones was forced to go to Cape Cod because of bad weather.
  33. Mayflower Compact: Pilgrims and laborers argued over the leadership of the new colony when Master Christopher Jones was forced to land the Mayflower outside of the original patent for the Hudson River location. All settlers came up with an agreement or compact that acted as a temporary government for the colony. The document did not create democracy, but elected an official leader of the group. (72 minutes)
  34. Nauset: This is the name of the land where the Pilgrims first arrived. There were 67 tribes that called this land their home. It was also the name of a local tribe that attacked the Pilgrims.
  35. Cape Cod: The scouting party explored areas of this region hoping to encounter a friendly tribe of natives. The party finally discovered dirt mounds at an abandoned Wampanoag village. The Pilgrims found 36 goodly ears of corn in the storage pits that they brought back aboard the Mayflower. Bradford stepped into a deer trap probably built by the Nauset on December 5, 1620. The women on the ship finally went to shore and washed clothing in the frigid weather. Passengers began to get sick and die. Master Jones wanted to return back to England before winter set in.
  36. First Encounter: On December 7, 1620, the scouting party made a shelter and were fearful and hopeful of finally meeting a native tribe. They finally encountered the Nauset on the morning of December 8. Numerous arrows were fired at the settlers. Only four people in the party had their arms with them, but they were able to cause the natives to retreat. The Pilgrims decided to leave Cape Cod because of their violent "First Encounter."
  37. Plymouth Rock: After numerous days of exploration, the passengers left Cape Cod and decided to settle at this location on December 11, 1620 because of the promising harbor. Bradford's wife Dorothy May fell off the Mayflower and died.
  38. settlement: On Monday, December 25th, the Pilgrims began work to erect their first house. They heard noises probably made by natives and prepared to defend themselves. On Thursday, January 11, Bradford was taken ill. The few structures that were built became hospitals and the settlers were forced to leave the Mayflower. Samoset told the settlers the region was called Patoxet and about the natives that were all wiped out between 1614 and 1620.
  39. scurvey: Bradford wrote that a lot of the settlers were sick with this illness because of their poor diet. Symptoms include bleeding of the gums, bruising, and bad pain. The disease will begin causing a cold, which often leads to pneumonia.
  40. hospitalization: After January 14, 1621, numerous settlers began to get very sick. The few structures that were built became hospitals instead of homes. Two to three people died daily during the months of January and February. Bradford called this time the "heart of winter" because fifty settlers died. William Brewster and Captain Myles Standish tried to help the sick settlers. As many as half of the thirty crew members also died during the winter.
  41. Samoset: The settlers saw numerous signs of inhabitants over the course of three months. Pilgrims were very surprised on March 16, 1621 to finally meet an Indian who spoke English. He had learned some English from a fishermen party in Maine and was able to communicate between the Pilgrims and Wampanoag. Samoset introduced the group to Squanto two days after their first contact.
  42. Massasoit: He was the chief of the Wampanoag tribe. He brought sixty men from his tribe to meet the Pilgrims. Squanto accompanied this chief at the alliance meeting. (105 minutes)
  43. Wampanoag: The tribe was weakened by disease and made an alliance with the Pilgrims as a form of protection from larger tribes in the region.
  44. Squanto: He spoke better English than Samoset, made the decision to stay with the Pilgrims, and taught them about his native culture and farming. He learned English from John Slany, a shipbuilder, and lived for three years on Corn Hill. While on a voyage to Newfoundland, he returned to his tribe Patoxet, only to discover they had all died during his absence from plague.
  45. England: Due to a harsh winter, illnesses, and numerous deaths, the crew of the Mayflower brought nothing of value back to England. Merchant Adventurers were very disappointed to learn the cargo was a bunch of rocks, which helped provide balance for the Mayflower on the return trip. As the settlers watched the Mayflower leave Plymouth Harbor, they witnessed a ship leave that had served as their home for many months and the only transportation back to England.
  46. Plymouth Colony: Governor John Carver became ill and died in April of 1621. Bradford was elected the second governor of Plymouth. Edward Winslow was successful in learning about the language and culture of the Wampanoag. The Nauset kidnapped a child because a party of English once kidnapped a young child of their tribe. After the settlers gave some small trinkets to the mother of the missing child, the Nauset returned the English boy and a truce was made between the tribe and the English.
  47. Thanksgiving: The first Thanksgiving was a three-day feast around the first harvest where both Pilgrims and Wampanoags feasted on turkey, ducks, geese, and seafood such as bass and cod. The thanksgiving feast was around the time of the harvest and gave thanks to God. Native protocol required the hosting party to feed and house the Wampanoags during the thanksgiving feast. Both groups of men competed in competitions such as shooting bows and arrows, firing rifles, wrestling, and other displays of strength. Massasoit's men brought to the feast five deer, which was a very special honor.
  48. New Plymouth: Edward Winslow continued to serve as an ambassador to the natives for twenty-five years, but returned to England in 1646 to represent the colonies abroad. Squanto sickened and died in 1622. William Bradford remarried, was reunited with his son, and saw numerous changes in the Plymouth Colony before dying at the age of 67. Governor Bradford and Massasoit continued their alliance for half a century and continue to teach later generations how to successfully live together in peace. (133 minutes)

Plymouth Colony Links

Learning Target: I will write a historical story about the Pilgrims.

  1. Do not take out anything today.
  2. Review Google Classroom and open both Desperate Crossing assignments.
  3. Log into the Apple Laptop review the instructions for the Desperate Crossing Historical Narrative assignment posted on Google Classroom
  4. Work on the Desperate Crossing Historical Narrative using Google Classroom tonight.

Desperate Crossing Historical Narrative

The Pilgrims2 were all hiding throughout the home as the constable hammered on the door and screamed, “Open up!” King James8 did not like them and had ordered any person or congregation13, that did not remain loyal to his Church of England4, would incur his wrath for disobedience. While they were somewhat afraid of what would happen once they opened the door, they knew that they were Separatists6, and were willing to face the consequences for fully following their firm faith in Christ. They did consider themselves Protestants5, but did not agree with the perspective of Puritans7, that the official Church would completely remove unbiblical practices. As they opened the door, the constable stormed in with his men and ordered the arrest of every person within the house. Children, women, and men were rounded up and spent a cold and dreary night in prison.

Write all 48 historical terms and then use the notes to create a very short sentence.

  1. Scrooby, England1
  2. Pilgrims2
  3. William Bradford3
  4. Church of England4
  5. Protestants5
  6. Separatists6
  7. Puritans7
  8. King James8
  9. Holland9
  10. Netherlands10
  11. Amsterdam11
  12. Dorothy May12
  13. congregation13
  14. John Robinson14
  15. William Brewster15
  16. Dutch16
  17. America17
  18. Jamestown18
  19. Native Americans19
  20. Virginia Colony20
  21. Leiden, Netherlands21
  22. Edward Winslow22
  23. Myles Standish23
  24. pamphlets24
  25. Merchant Adventurers25
  26. Speedwell26
  27. Mayflower27
  28. Strangers28
  29. Master Christopher Jones29
  30. voyage30
  31. diet31
  32. Hudson River32
  33. Mayflower Compact33
  34. Nauset34
  35. Cape Cod35
  36. First Encounter36
  37. Plymouth Rock37
  38. settlement38
  39. scurvey39
  40. hospitalization40
  41. Samoset41
  42. Massasoit42
  43. Wampanoag43
  44. Squanto44
  45. England45
  46. Plymouth Colony46
  47. Thanksgiving47
  48. New Plymouth48

Plymouth Colony Links

Desperate Crossing Narrative Peer Editing

Learning Target: I can identify significant people and historical events related to the settlement of Plymouth Colony46.

  1. Take an Editor Sheet from the shelf and head it.
  2. Review the Learning Target and instructions for the Editor Sheet.
  3. Work in groups of four to peer edit A22: Desperate Crossing Historical Narrative Draft.
  4. Answer these three questions while reading each narrative:
    1. Did the narrative follow instructions? If not, what areas are incorrect?
    2. What are some areas that need improvement?
    3. What are some strengths of the current draft?
  5. Students who did not complete the assignment will silently work on it during class.
  6. Once completing the Peer Editing, speak with group members about the narrative and ways to improve the final draft.
  7. Work on a final draft of Desperate Crossing Historical Narrative tonight.


Surname 1

John Hancock

History Period #

14 December 2017

Desperate Crossing Historical Narrative

Delete this Prompt and all instructions before submitting your narrative in Google Classroom.

Prompt: Write a historical narrative in third person that underlines and superscripts1 ALL posted terms to fully explain 1) reasons the emigrants left England for America, 2) describes the desperate crossing made by passengers aboard the Mayflower, and 3) provides vivid descriptions of the events that led to the permanent establishment of Plymouth Colony. Narratives must follow instructions, be submitted in Google Classroom, use proper language conventions, and use ALL terms.

Type your last name over the Surname and then type your full name and period in the heading template above. Triple click the left mouse button to fully highlight a term to use in the narrative. Use all terms in your narrative. Cut (CTRL X) and Paste (CTRL V) each term into the body of your historical third person narrative. Turn off Superscript (CTRL .) if necessary. Delete this Prompt, Instructions, and Rubric before submitting your narrative in Google Classroom.

Open the Desperate Crossing Viewing Notes in a separate window to better understand the meaning of each term. A narrative is a story, not an encyclopedia entry. Use dialogue, human emotions, and descriptions to make the story interesting.

Desperate Crossing Historical Narrative Rubric



MLA Format




Due Date






Total Points