Solomon Northup was born in New York as a free man. He was tricked by con men who promised Solomon work as a violinist, but later drugged him and sold him into slavery. Solomon worked for 12 years as a slave and told his true story once he regained his freedom.
The Atlantic slave trade: What too few textbooks told you - Anthony Hazard is a 5:38 minute TEDEd video explaining details about the human trafficking that brought 10,000,000 African slaves to the Americas.
- Cotton, Sugar Cane, and Tobacco were three major laborious cash crops
- More than 10,000,000 people brought as slaves from Africa to the Americas
- African kingdoms traded slaves for guns, rum, and tools
- African slaves were dehumanized and treated as cargo when they were shipped to the Americas
- Racist ideology was caused by slavery
Lives Bound Together: Slavery at George Washington’s Mount Vernon is a 7:20 minute video exploring insights about how Washington dealt with the implications of slavery at his plantation.
- Slaves were property with no legal rights
- 317 slaves were living in Mount Vernon when Washington died
- Overseers were in charge of slaves and discipline
- He wanted slavery slowly abolished (gradualism)
- He was the only Founder to free slaves in his will
What does this lesson teach us about enslaved families and how they coped with separation?
The electrifying speeches of Sojourner Truth - Daina Ramey Berry 4:39 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0sn8CUyvG2k Published on Apr 28, 2020 Get to know the story of Sojourner Truth, a woman born into slavery who became known as a powerful orator and outspoken activist. -- Isabella Baumfree was born into slavery in late 18th century New York. Fleeing bondage with her youngest daughter, she renamed herself Sojourner Truth and embarked on a legendary speaking tour. She became known as an electrifying orator and her speeches impacted thousands of people in communities across the United States. Daina Ramey Berry details the life of the outspoken activist. Lesson by Daina Ramey Berry, directed by WOW-HOW Studio. View full lesson: https://ed.ted.com/lessons/the-electrifying-speeches-of-sojourner-truth-daina-ramey-berry
The Constitution of the United States Slave Clauses
Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.
Article I, Section 2, Clause 3
The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.
Article I, Section 9, Clause 1
No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.
Article IV, Section 2, Clause 3
Passed by Congress January 31, 1865. Ratified December 6, 1865.
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Passed by Congress June 13, 1866. Ratified July 9, 1868.
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.
The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.
The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
Passed by Congress February 26, 1869. Ratified February 3, 1870.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude —
The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
- The Heritage Guide to The Constitution provides numerous annotations and essays to the Constitution of the United States of America.
- Vermont, the first state to abolish adult slavery, is trying to remove any mention of slavery from its Constitution altogether Michelle Lou and Brandon Griggs in this April 25, 2019 article explain background about how Vermont abolished slavery in 1777.
- How the Constitution Was Indeed Pro-Slavery David Waldstreicher explains in this September 19, 2015 The Atlantic article his thoughts about the 11 clauses that deal with slavery in the Constitution.
- Constitutionally, Slavery Is No National Institution Sean Wilentz explains in this September 16, 2015 New York Times article how the Constitution attempted to limit slavery.
- CHRONOLOGY-Who banned slavery when? provides a timeline of major years involving the beginning and abolition of slavery.
- Juneteenth explains background about this holiday and the celebrations that take place marking the end of slavery.
- Twelve Years a Slave: Narrative of Solomon Northup, a Citizen of New-York, Kidnapped in Washington City in 1841, and Rescued in 1853 provides a summary about this famous narrative.
- North American Slave Narratives publishes numerous electronic slave accounts listed in alphabetical order.
- The Underground Railroad - escape from slavery is a Scholastic lesson plan that provides numerous resources.
- Benjamin Franklin and Slavery provides background about Franklin's thoughts about slavery throughout his life.
- Myths of the Underground Railroad explores Myths and the actual Truths of how enslaved African Americans escaped to freedom.